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Artaxerxes III (or sometimes Artaxerxes II Ochos) began the 31st Dynasty after the Persian forces defeated the Egyptians. He was king of Persia for about twenty years, and took over the throne of Egypt, where he ruled for about six years.
Artaxerxes had led two campaigns against Egypt. The first failed (probably due to disease in the Persian army, according to my notes) but the second was successful in taking over the much weaker Egyptian army.
The occupation of the persian invaders was not peaceful. They are recorded as massacring many Egyptians, desecrating temples, and stealing many of the artifacts in egypt. Many statues were removed to Persia during Artaxerxes' reign.
Apparently the violence was not entirely aimed at the subdued Egyptians. Artaxerxes was murdered by his commander, Bagoas, in the summer of 338 BCE.