|home | travelogue | itinerary | photos | history | books
Nectanebo II was the last independent Egyptian ruler. At the end of his reign, Egypt was conquered by the Persians and the remaining pharaohs were either Persian conquerors of completely Greek kings.
He came to the throne through the efforts of his father, a regent in Egypt while Teos waged his unsuccessful attack on Persia. Teos fled to Persia and Nectanebo was installed on the throne. He ruled for about eighteen years, and was responsible for many building projects.
After watching the disastrous encounter with the Persians in his uncles reign, Nectanebo II did not make any more campaigns against them, but the Persians rethought their plan and attacked Egypt once again, this time succeeding. Nectanebo got some assistance from Cyprus and Phoenicia, but Artaxerxes III defeated these troops and and moved directly against Egypt. This time, instead of massing at the Nile delta, the Persians attacked from many directions and Nectanebo II was forced to retreat into Memphis. The city fell and the pharaoh fled. leaving the remains of the Egyptian state to the Persian invaders.
Like his predecessor, he fled the country at the end of his reign. According to one story, he went to Macedonia and joined the Macedonian court. Another story has him fleeing to Nubia and disappearing.