p h o u k a   h o m e i r i s h   l e s s o n s   h o m e


Part I
Chapter 1
Chapter 2

Part II
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6

Part III
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5



Chapter 6 — Particles

§52. — Adverbs

There are few simple adverbs in the Irish language. Adverbial expressions are formed by prefixing go to adjectives ; as, maiṫ, good; go maiṫ, well; these are compared in the same way as the adjectives themselves. Adverbial expressions are also formed by the combination of prepositions and nouns, or pronouns ; as, ar gcúl, backwards, compounded of ar, upon; and cúl, the back.

The following particles are only used in composition:—

A. Negative Particles

aṁ e.g. with deóin will aiṁḋeaoin unwillingness
an " tráṫ time antráṫ improper time
do " beusaċ well-behaved doiḃeusaċ ill-behaved
" creideaṁ belief díċreideaṁ unbelief
droċ " blas taste droċblhas a bad taste
éa, éi " cóír righteousness éagcóir unrighteousness
eas " cara a friend easgcara an enemy
" ciall sense míċiall folly
neaṁ " claon partial neaṁċlaon impartial

B. Intensive Particles

aḋ e.g. with molaḋ praise aḋṁolaiḋ excessive praise
an " mór great anṁór very great
biṫ " beo living biṫḃeo eternal
do " brón grief doḃrón great grief
il " gné a kind ilġnéiṫeaċ manifold
im " lán full iomlán very full
oll " glór noise ollġlór bombast
ur " easḃuiḋ want uireasḃuiḋ poverty

C. Particles of various other meanings

eis, ais e.g. with íoc a payment aisioc repayment
at " blas a savour aṫḃlas an after savour
cóm " trom weight coṁṫrom equal weight
deaġ " glas taste deaġblas a good taste
in fit " déanta done índéanta fit to be done
so easy, " déanta done soiḋéanta easy to be done

Let the learner bear in mind the rule caol le caol, 7c . Thus, aṁ is aiṁ in aiṁḋeoin; do is doi in doiḃeasaċ; im is iom in iomlán, &c. Several of these particles have also a separate existence as substantives or adjectives.

The particles used with verbs have been mentioned previously in §35.





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Grammar of modern irish - Wright - 1860
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