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Adverbs express circumstances of quality, manner, time, place, &c. in nouns and verbs ; and a noun substantive or adjective becomes an adverb, by prefixing ar to the former, or go to the latter ; thus, ar ccul, back. or away ; go holc, badly.

Although a list of Adverbs belongs more properly to a Dictionary, it will not be amiss to mention some of the most common here.

a ḃfad far off deis after
a ḃfoċair in presence of do ṫuaḋ northwards
a ḃogus near do ḋeas southwards
a ḃfos on this side do ġnaċ usually
a ċoidce ever eaḋon namely, viz
a gcoṁair opposite fa towards
aice near fa dúl backwards
air aġaiḋ opposite fa ḋeoiġ, fa ḋeireaḋ lastly, at length
air fad along fa ḋó twice
air feaḋ throughout fa leaṫ, fa seaċ apart, successively
air fud amongst feasda hencefortch
airgċul backwards fos yet, moreover
air leiṫ by turns ge gur although
air, & air air afterwards, backwards giḋeaḋ nevertheless
air uairíḃ sometimes ge, go dti, go nuige until
amaċ, amuiġ out, without go airiḋ at least
aṁail like, as go foíl yet yereafter
aṁain only, except, alone go mórṁón espeically
amáraċ tomorrow iomorro, or umorro moreoever
aṁlaiḋ so, equal ionas, na,iona than
a measg amidst mar, mur as likewise
a nal hither, over mar an gceaḋna likewise
anallód formerly mar aon together
a né, a ndé yesterday mar so even thus
a néinḟeaċt, aroin together maseaḋ why
angar close to na than
aniar westerly naċ not
anoir easterly no else
a, or uaḋ nḋeas southerly ó since
a, or uaḋ ṫuaiḋ northerly ó ċéile asunder
anuiġ today os, uaḋ is since
anoċt tonight os aird publicly
aníos from below os ísiol privately
anuas from above os cean, or cionn above, superior to
annaḋ seldom o ṡionn thence
anois now re ċéile together
a nonn agus a nall to and fro very
antán when roiṁ timely, soon
a nun thither reaċ rather, else
areiḋiror 4eir last night siar westwards
ariaṁ, riaṁ ever sior easterwards
arís again suas upwards, aloft
ar teaċ, ar tiġ within ṡuas above
attosaċ at first sul before, until
beg naċ almost ṫall on the other side
bun or cion topsy turvey tamal awhile
ceana already, however tareis afterwards
ċum in order to tulle fos, or eile moreover
    umeso therefore

The following Adverbial Particles, when united to words, give them a negative, intensitive, or reiterative character.

Negative, operating as aṁ, an, do, di, ead, eag, eas, mi, neaṁ.

Ex. prosperity, anró adversity; caraid a friend, eascraid an enemy.

Intensitives — an, gle, iom, ur; as granna ugly, ur-granna, very ugly. : the an is sometimes written without the A, before a vowel. Reiterative — aḋ, as buailte, beatn, aḋbuailte beaten again. in and ion betoken fitness or propriety, as deanta done, indeanta, proper to be done. .in, og, and eog are diminutives, when at the end of words. so signifies goodness, aptness, facility ; as soblaida well flavored; soleaġṫa fusible, from so leaġṫa fit to be fused. Coṁ denotes equality; as trom weigth, coṁtrom equal weight. Aṁ betokens similitude—it is from aṁuil.

The signs of the comparative and superlative degrees, and of the infinitive and other words, have been already noticed.

Mr. O'Brien says that these particles properly admit of no change in their orthography, on account of the poetical rule of caol re caol agus leaṫan re leaṫan already alluded to, in the composition of words.


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grammar of the irish language—mason—1842
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